- pygame module for camera use
— Module init — Get the backends supported on this system — Surface colorspace conversion — returns a list of available cameras — load a camera
Pygame currently supports Linux (V4L2) and Windows (MSMF) cameras natively, with wider platform support available via an integrated OpenCV backend.
New in pygame 2.0.2: Windows native camera support
New in pygame 2.0.3: New OpenCV backends
EXPERIMENTAL!: This API may change or disappear in later pygame releases. If you use this, your code will very likely break with the next pygame release.
The Bayer to
RGBfunction is based on:
Sonix SN9C101 based webcam basic I/F routines Copyright (C) 2004 Takafumi Mizuno <email@example.com> Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions are met: 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer. 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution. THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE AUTHOR AND CONTRIBUTORS ``AS IS'' AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHOR OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.
New in pygame 1.9.0.
- Module initinit(backend = None) -> None
This function starts up the camera module, choosing the best webcam backend it can find for your system. This is not guaranteed to succeed, and may even attempt to import third party modules, like OpenCV. If you want to override its backend choice, you can call pass the name of the backend you want into this function. More about backends in
Changed in pygame 2.0.3: Option to explicitly select backend
- Get the backends supported on this systemget_backends() -> [str]
This function returns every backend it thinks has a possibility of working on your system, in order of priority.
Backend OS Description --------------------------------------------------------------------------------- _camera (MSMF) Windows Builtin, works on Windows 8+ Python3 _camera (V4L2) Linux Builtin OpenCV Any Uses `opencv-python` module, can't enumerate cameras OpenCV-Mac Mac Same as OpenCV, but has camera enumeration VideoCapture Windows Uses abandoned `VideoCapture` module, can't enumerate cameras, may be removed in the future
There are two main differences among backends.
The _camera backends are built in to pygame itself, and require no third party imports. All the other backends do. For the OpenCV and VideoCapture backends, those modules need to be installed on your system.
The other big difference is "camera enumeration." Some backends don't have a way to list out camera names, or even the number of cameras on the system. In these cases,
list_cameras()will return something like
. If you know you have multiple cameras on the system, these backend ports will pass through a "camera index number" through if you use that as the
New in pygame 2.0.3.
- Surface colorspace conversioncolorspace(Surface, format, DestSurface = None) -> Surface
Allows for conversion from "RGB" to a destination colorspace of "HSV" or "YUV". The source and destination surfaces must be the same size and pixel depth. This is useful for computer vision on devices with limited processing power. Capture as small of an image as possible,
transform.scale()it even smaller, and then convert the colorspace to
HSVbefore doing any processing on it.
- returns a list of available cameraslist_cameras() -> [cameras]
Checks the computer for available cameras and returns a list of strings of camera names, ready to be fed into
pygame.camera.Cameraload a camera.
If the camera backend doesn't support webcam enumeration, this will return something like
get_backends()for much more information.
- load a cameraCamera(device, (width, height), format) -> Camera
— opens, initializes, and starts capturing — stops, uninitializes, and closes the camera — gets current values of user controls — changes camera settings if supported by the camera — returns the dimensions of the images being recorded — checks if a frame is ready — captures an image as a Surface — returns an unmodified image as bytes
Loads a camera. On Linux, the device is typically something like "/dev/video0". Default width and height are 640 by 480. Format is the desired colorspace of the output. This is useful for computer vision purposes. The default is
RGB. The following are supported:
RGB- Red, Green, Blue
YUV- Luma, Blue Chrominance, Red Chrominance
HSV- Hue, Saturation, Value
- opens, initializes, and starts capturingstart() -> None
Opens the camera device, attempts to initialize it, and begins recording images to a buffer. The camera must be started before any of the below functions can be used.
- stops, uninitializes, and closes the camerastop() -> None
Stops recording, uninitializes the camera, and closes it. Once a camera is stopped, the below functions cannot be used until it is started again.
- gets current values of user controlsget_controls() -> (hflip = bool, vflip = bool, brightness)
If the camera supports it, get_controls will return the current settings for horizontal and vertical image flip as bools and brightness as an int. If unsupported, it will return the default values of (0, 0, 0). Note that the return values here may be different than those returned by set_controls, though these are more likely to be correct.
- changes camera settings if supported by the cameraset_controls(hflip = bool, vflip = bool, brightness) -> (hflip = bool, vflip = bool, brightness)
Allows you to change camera settings if the camera supports it. The return values will be the input values if the camera claims it succeeded or the values previously in use if not. Each argument is optional, and the desired one can be chosen by supplying the keyword, like hflip. Note that the actual settings being used by the camera may not be the same as those returned by set_controls. On Windows,
vflipare implemented by pygame, not by the Camera, so they should always work, but
- returns the dimensions of the images being recordedget_size() -> (width, height)
Returns the current dimensions of the images being captured by the camera. This will return the actual size, which may be different than the one specified during initialization if the camera did not support that size.
- checks if a frame is readyquery_image() -> bool
If an image is ready to get, it returns true. Otherwise it returns false. Note that some webcams will always return False and will only queue a frame when called with a blocking function like
get_image(). On Windows (MSMF), and the OpenCV backends,
query_image()should be reliable, though. This is useful to separate the framerate of the game from that of the camera without having to use threading.
- captures an image as a Surfaceget_image(Surface = None) -> Surface
Pulls an image off of the buffer as an
RGBSurface. It can optionally reuse an existing Surface to save time. The bit-depth of the surface is 24 bits on Linux, 32 bits on Windows, or the same as the optionally supplied Surface.
- returns an unmodified image as bytesget_raw() -> bytes
Gets an image from a camera as a string in the native pixelformat of the camera. Useful for integration with other libraries. This returns a bytes object
Edit on GitHub